Leonova Natal'ya Alekseevna, Candidate of biological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of general biology and biochemistry, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Miroshnichenko Tat'yana Evgen'evna, Biology teacher, secondary school № 68 with advanced computer studies (140 Stroiteley avenue, Penza, Russia), email@example.com
Kuznetsova Anna Viktorovna, Candidate of chemical sciences, associate professor, sub-department of general and clinical pharmacology, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. Species of the genus Salvia naturally grow in the forest-steppe ecotopes of Penza region and have no pronounced medicinal, ethereal, fatty or spicy aromatic properties. Therefore, it is quite relevant to study biological features and assess the results of introduction of economically valuable species of sage in the region beyond the boundaries of its natural habitats. The purpose of the study is to elucidate the features of the ontogenesis of introduced economically valuable species (Salvia officinalis, S. nemorosa, S. sclarea) and rare species (S. verticillata) of sage in the conditions of Penza region for the purpose of their subsequent cultivation.
Materials and methods. The ontogenesis of Salvia officinalis, S. nemorosa, S. sclarea and S. verticillata has been studied since May 2015 at Penza Botanical Garden of PSU. During the vegetative season with a break of 5–7 days the researchers were observing changes in the age status of the noted species and conducting biometric measurements. To study the ontogeny, the plants were dug out while maintaining the individual integrity. The age was determined on the basis of a complex of qualitative morphological indicators.
Results. The climatic conditions in Penza region are not optimal for complete ontogeny passage by the species: in severe winters and with insufficient snow cover they freeze; spring frosts also adversely affect the growth and development of plants. In the conditions of Penza region the main method of self-maintenance for Salvia nemorosa, S. sclarea and S. verticillata is seminal, for Salvia officinalis – mainly vegetative.
Сonclusions. Adverse climatic conditions lead to reduced duration of ontogenesis (loss of mature generative stages in the ontogenesis of Salvia sclarea) and decreased sizes of the vegetative part of plants (especially the leaves). The economically valuable species under study can be recommended for cultivation, but it is necessary to meet the conditions for their growth: light sandy loamy soils, well warmed by the sun, places protected from the wind. It is important to protect them from freezing and soaking. Salvia nemorosa, S. sclarea, S. verticillata can be propagated by seeds, because they have a good germination capacity. Salvia officinalis is best propagated vegetatively, using greenhouses.
Salvia officinalis, S. nemorosa, S. sclarea, S. verticillata, ontogenesis, introduction
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